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Based on the recovered stakes and wattle, 17 different taxa were used to construct the weir, portions of which date to 4, yrs BP Newby and Webb❿
 
 

 

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Darrin Lowery. Jonathan Lothrop , James W. Robert Maslowski. Francis “Jess” Robinson. Francis “Jess” Robinson , John Crock. Lucianne M Lavin , Marc Banks. Christopher Moore. Jean-Charles Cachon. Ervan Garrison. Elizabeth Chilton.

Brad Koldehoff. Christopher Jazwa. Ilene Grossman-Bailey. Ashley Smallwood , Shane Miller. Shane Miller. Gingerich, pp. David Anderson. William A Lovis. Joseph A M Gingerich. Stuart Fiedel. Jesse Tune. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Related Papers. Northeast Subsistence-Settlement Change: A.

Geoarchaeology of Landscapes in the Glaciated Northeast. Northeast Settlement-Subsistence Change, A. In honor of the occasion, the ASC Board of Directors authorized this special volume of the Bulletin characterizing the present state of knowledge on archaeological cultures in the state.

A similar volume 47 was published in honor of the ASC’s 50’h anniversary in The publication was a great success. It has long been sold out, but the editorial staff still receives requests for copies. As a courtesy, the authors who had participated in the 50’h anniversary synopsis were invited to submit new or revised articles taking into account the many archaeological discoveries in the past 15 years since the publication of Volume Because of the increased amounts of data on the Early and Middle Archaic periods, separate articles appeared justified.

Daniel Forrest and Brian Jones were invited to author the latter, as both their respective doctoral dissertations concern the early prehistory of what is presently the state of Connecticut. Daniel Cassedy was invited to submit a paper on the Late Archaic and Terminal Archaic periods based on archaeological information retrieved during construction of the Iroquois Gas pipeline through western Connecticut, a region for which there is little published research. Additionally, because of the recent growth of a body of information on paleo-botany, Lucinda McWeeney was asked to submit a paper on prehistoric environmental changes in Connecticut to set the stage for the ensuing chronological cultural reconstructions.

Stuart Reeve and Katherine Forgacs’s paper, which enumerates and synthesizes the several hundred local, largely unpublished, radiocarbon dates that had been generated from state archaeological sites in the past 15 years, provides a general backdrop for Connecticut prehistory and a takeoff point for the subsequent discussions of specific cultural periods by the remainder of the authors.

Reeve and Forgacs article replaces my chronological synthesis of the various cultural stages and periods as we knew them at that time. It and the other articles in the volume were mainly oriented toward culture history and settlement archaeology, due to the kinds and amounts of archaeological data that were then available. The unearthing of greater and more diverse cultural information has allowed our present authors to expand those original cultural bounds.

Most deal with cultures in regional perspective. Several, like Cassedy, Feder, and Juli, address theoretical and classificatory problems. Others such as Moeller, Gradie, and Poirier, critique recent archaeological endeavors, illuminating future research topics. In sum, this special volume on Connecticut archaeology is packed with empirical information and suffused with theoretical questioning.

Archaeologists typically draw from pollen interpretations to provide broad descriptions of the landscape vegetation history. However, in the last decade more analytical techniques have been added to the archae- ologists’ repertoire for recovering evidence of past environments.

Charred plant remains from archaeological sites along with anaerobically preserved plant macrofossils recovered from swamp sediments, buried peat deposits, and cut-off meander channels provide a wealth of environmental data to supplement the pollen.

Environmental reconstruction draws from numerous databases to interpret the prehistoric setting for people who lived in the past. Archaeologists typically draw from pollen interpretations to provide broad descriptions of the landscape vegetation history e. How- ever, in the last decade more analytical techniques have been added to the archaeologists’ repertoire for recovering evidence of past environments.

Charred plant remains from archaeological sites along with anaerobically preserved plant macrofossils recovered from swamp sediments, buried peat deposits, and cut- off meander channels provide a wealth of environmental data to supplement the pollen. However, pollen found in lake or swamp sediments represents regional terrestrial and local aquatic plants, but rarely con- tains pollen from plants pollinated other than by the wind. Pollen preservation and representation varies with the size of the catchment basin lake, pond, swamp, forest-hollow, moss polsters , continuity of anaerobic conditions, water chemistry, and other climatic conditions Jacobson and Bradshaw ; Birks Obtaining precise enough dates from pollen and plant remains to allow detailed environmental recon- structions of value to archaeologists has been difficult for a number of reasons.

First, cores obtained for sedimentary analysis were usually dated in relation to sedimentary events rather than for botanical interest. Second, until the advent of accelerator mass spectrometer dating AMS , it was necessary to submit large samples to radiocarbon laboratories, and critical samples often lacked sufficient carbon to be accurately dated.

Sending the material to be dated without prior identification of the included plant remains also resulted in dating organisms that did not breathe terrestrial carbon leading to older dates MacDonald ; Miller and Thompson For all of these reasons, the dating of plant remains has lagged behind the dating of archaeological sites. Fortunately, with the use of AMS dating, these problems can now largely be overcome. As archaeologists, we need precisely dated vegetation profiles that can be refined to narrow time frames.

Pollen studies and regional overviews are more typically reported in increments of to years or more. In many instances pollen interpretations melded the Holocene environment geologically, the last 10, years into one large unit from the preboreal stage to the advent of Europeans whose presence was indicated by the rise in Ambrosia pollen years ago.

Recent vegetation studies have therefore incorporated plant macrofossil identification along with pollen identification and interpretation.

The analyzed sediments come from closely spaced samples to recover ter- restrial plant remains for AMS radiocarbon dating Kneller and Peteet ; McWeeney OF CT. This is critical when interpreting archaeological sites. From this newly established and expanding vegetation record we can formulate hypotheses and develop new testing methods to expand our knowledge of the prehistoric landscape. An accurate environmental description will provide a significant backdrop for examining social, technological and economic patterns.

The following discussion provides a general description of the post-glacial environment in southern New England based on the best available, current information. Radiocarbon dates are uncalibrated and will be referred to as BP uncalibrated and before present using AD as the baseline date. Plant taxonomy follows Fernald ; common names are used in the text and Latin names can be found in Table I. Maple Alnus Alder Ambrosia sp.

Ragweed Betula sp. Goosefoot Comus sp. Dogwood Cladium mariscoides Twig rush Corylus sp. Rush Larix laricina Larch Myrica sp. Bayberry Myrica gale Sweet gale Nuphar sp. Rhododendron Rubus sp. Willow Salix herbacea Dwarf wi lIow Sambucus sp.

Elderberry Sassafras albidum Sassafras Scheuchzeria palustris var. Cattail Ulmus sp. Elm Vaccinium sp. According to Bjorck et al. Critical oxygen isotope values document fluctuating temperatures in the last 22, years See Table 2. Ice covered southern New England, with estimates suggesting a thickness of over a mile high at the peak of the last glacier, ca.

Tundra conditions are evident based on pollen and plant macrofossils found in the basal swamp cores in Pennsylvania 60 km south of the ice at the time of maximum glaciation Watts and in New Jersey Peteet et The growing range for boreal conifers such as spruce and fir was pushed far to the south Watts ; Whitehead and deciduous trees were only sparsely represented in the pollen record Jackson and Givens As the glacial lobes melted and retreated northward after 18, yrs BP.

While organic preservation in southern New England basin cores often begins around 12, BP, some sites farther south document earlier changes. Pine, with spruce and fir and a few wanner climate plants dominated the vegetation at Brown’s Pond, even as the ice was retreating in New England Kneller and Peteet Allerod Bog, at m produced tundra vegetation.

The identification of white pine charcoal dating to 15, BP from the Nottoway River Cactus Hill site in the Coastal Plain of southeastern Virginia McWeeney a indicates warming temperatures at lower latitudes and lower elevations McWeeney Based on the overlapping temperature ranges for oak, ash, maple trees, and white pine, the presence of white pine suggests Plain most likely indicates the local presence of temperate trees colonizing the region McWeeney , Ia.

Pollen and macrofossil evidence indicates that periglacial near the ice condi- tions persisted in the deglaciated parts of New England until ca. Fluctuating cool and moist conditions have been described for the lower latitudes of the Middle Atlantic Kellogg and Custer Some of the first indications of the warming appear at Brown’s Pond, Virginia, when fir becomes abundant along with substantial amounts of alder pollen around 14, GI-I Kneller and Peteet ; also see Taylor et al.

The pollen from floating aquatic plants such as pond lily tells us there was an open pond, while the fir trees are an indication of moist land around the pond. The presence of oak and birch pollen this early strongly suggests an increasing deciduous influence with ameliorating temperatures. Spruce pollen continued to be present in some pollen cores from the Middle Atlantic region, and south into Georgia, until 11, yrs BP, but the pollen most likely was derived from higher elevations and traveled long distances by wind rather than growing at the lower elevations Gaudreau ; Watts Alternatively, black spruce may have persisted around wetlands or bogs under a relatively warm climate, and at higher elevations until more temperate tree species replaced them.

In general, boreal and temperate vegetation migrated northward rapidly as the ice retreated Davis et al. Based on the macrofossils, white pine, fir, and larch arrived in Connecticut at the same time as spruce trees, a time that corresponds to the Allerod warm interval of northern Europe.

White pine is an indicator of warmer environments; its northern range is close to that of red oak, black ash, and hornbeam McWeeney The ice withdrew northward across the St. Lawrence sometime around 11, 14Cyrs BP Ridge et al. Botanical evidence from New England indicates that warmer and wetter conditions prevailed between approximately 12, and 11, 14Cyrs BP Peteet et al.

Estimates for mean July temperature Peteet et al. Pine colonized in Maine by 12, 14C yrs BP. Red or Jack pine may have been the first species to arrive, with white pine delayed until ca. Cold temperatures returned around 11, yrs B P, warmed briefly, and then dropped for nearly years Taylor et al. This long term shift in climate in human terms, though not geologically , known as the Younger Dryas event or oscillation now appears to be of global impact, while originally it was seen as a North Atlantic phenomena Peteet et al.

Widespread evidence for the Younger Dryas is now recognized as far south as the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. Glacial lobes reactivated in Nova Scotia Stea and Mott and evidence suggests the same may be true in northern Maine Dorian Esti- mates based on plant remains and oxygen isotope records suggest a temperature decrease of 3 to 4 degrees C 2 degrees F with a mean July temperature of 13 – 14 degrees C 58 degrees F Peteet et al. The increase in spruce, white birch, and alder pollen, along with a decrease in oak pollen, makeup indi- cator species for the Younger Dryas event in southern New England.

Peteet et al. A gap in sediment preservation at both Pequot Cedar Swamp and the headwaters of Bull Brook suggests that a drier climate led to lower water levels at both sites during the Younger Dryas. Grassy marshes formed in some former open wetland basins McWeeney , The overall climate was colder and appears to have been drier, with pulses of higher temperatures Taylor et al. A Connecticut archaeological site provided the documentation for the end of the Younger Dryas.

The GISP2 cores and oxygen isotope analyses show that climatic fluctuations continued during the 10th millennium B. P Yu and Eicher Indications of these fluctuations were recorded when water levels rose early in the Holocene, only to fall in the second half of the millennium.

The GISP2 ice core record shows several fluctuations between warm and colder in the first few hundred years. The oxygen isotopes and carbon isotope analyses from southern Ontario support this pattern with a minor decline in temperature recorded for 9, yrs BP see Yu and Eicher Fig.

While the fluctuations continue throughout the Holocene, temperatures cor- related with changes in oxygen isotopes do not dip as low as between 10, and yrs BP Yu and Eicher However, the dates for the pond also bracket a drying episode recorded in the oxidized sediments during that millennium.

At Bull Brook, water shield, naiads and twig-rush seeds, along with stonewort algae strengthen the rising water level hypothesis for the beginning of the Holocene. Based on the pollen record, spruce, larch, and fir were replaced by white pine, birch, beech, and oaks in the Northeast Gaudreau ; Peteet et al. Plant macrofossils from cores and archaeological sites show that white pine, yellow and gray birch, and oak increased dramatically, and were quickly accompanied by a suite of temperate deciduous trees McWeeney ; Maenza-Gmelch Breaks in sedimentation and oxidation provide some of the clues that wetlands shrank and water levels dropped throughout the New England area Davis ; Jacobson et al.

Lower water levels have also been inferred from sedimentary hiatuses, sediment accumulation rates Newby nd , plus diatoms and sponge spicule identification from Pequot Cedar Swamp in southern New England McWeeney b. Oxidized, cemented, orange sediments, just below the water lily seeds AMS dated to 8, yrs BP at Pequot Cedar Swamp, suggest a period of extreme drying and possibly fire McWeeney Similar sediments are reported for Bull Brook McWeeney Transposing the dates to I sigma standard deviation, the drying period appears to occur sometime between 9, to 8, yrs BP In coastal Maine, Kellogg identified algal cysts suggesting shallow, stagnant water during the APine period at Ross Pond.

The abundant pine pollen may reflect colonization of the newly exposed, dried out shorelines by the white pine trees. In the White Mountains, white pine and hemlock grew beyond their modern tree line suggesting higher temperatures and a decrease in precipitation at 9, yrs BP Davis et al.

While modern investigations frequently revise older research, these dates support Deevey and Flint’s time for initiation of the Hypsithermal period at 9, yrs BP. Bryson et al. After 8, BP plants such as alder, sweet gale, elderberry, leatherleaf, rhododendron and brambles indicate shrub swamp conditions at Pequot Swamp McWeeney Gray birch and white pine trees provide a backdrop of pioneering species colonizing open spaces. On the deeper, east side of the basin sedges, cattails, and twig-rush depict the initiation of marsh conditions.

The shrub swamp transition also occurred at Bull Brook, Massachusetts, with scant evidence preserved from willow and leatherleaf, as well as gray birch McWeeney , an indicator of sterile, dry or wet soil Fernald The archaeological charcoal assemblages may not reflect the entire floral assemblage because of human selection and preservation issues.

However the charred remains provide an opportunity to see some of what was locally available during the millennium. Oak, aspen, and white pine trees provided some of the fuel wood at the Templeton site in Washington, Connecticut McWeeney White oak and white pine were abundant, as well, in the charcoal remains from an Early Archaic context at the Dill Farm site in southeastern Connecticut L. McWeeney, personal research ; walnut and hazelnut shells were also identified Pfeiffer I.

Red and white oak, ash, maple, hornbeam and white pine were identified from the Early Archaic Johnsen 3 site in upstate New York Funk ; McWeeney Based on the pollen, white pine has long been acknowledged as a component of the early Holocene forests; however, the charcoal from archaeological sites provides a more diverse picture of the deciduous trees also growing in southern New England at that time. Dahl-Jensen el al.

However, as in previous eras, the pattern was not static. According to Deevey and Flint , glaciers re-advanced in some parts of the globe around 7, BP, with cooling again between 5, and 5, yrs BP. Occasional shifts to cold were interlaced with the warmer temperatures Grove ; higher summer temperatures returned between 5, and 5, yrs BP and again at 4, yrs BP.

The GISP2 interpretations place the sharp decline in temperature ca. However, within a few decades the warming increased around 7, BP and continued until another major cooling event appeared ca. The carbon isotope and oxygen isotope analyses show an earlier drop in temperature, ca.

The pollen record provides additional evidence for fluctuating environments, with a predominant image of warming during the middle Holocene. An increase in the amount of ragweed led Margaret Davis to interpret a decline in forest trees in the northeast around 8, years ago. She described a corollary to the onset of the prairie period reported for the mid-western states Davis The pollen spectra from Pequot Swamp recorded a decline innumerous deciduous trees North American Pollen data- base. The increase in the ragweed pollen in Connecticut and an increase in oak in Vermont implied a drier climate around 7, yrs BP Davis et al.

The presence of hemlock needles m. However, Miller reported that several mesic pollen indicators remained in western New York, although oak and hickory decreased Miller This may record a very local condition since the Prairie period clearly expanded eastward at this time in the Midwest Cushing ; McAndrews For New England, the pollen spectra show a decrease in pollen deposi- tion rates, decline in pollen from forest trees, extension of tree ranges, and an increase in herbaceous plants.

Sediments and plant macrofossils document a drying period for the middle Holocene. A broadly distributed pattern shows an increase in charred organics in swamp cores from New England McWeeney , ; Sneddon ; Winkler , and as far away as Nova Scotia Green All of the cores recovered from Pequot Cedar Swamp contained a charred peat stratum 8 to 15 em thick. Lightning strikes on desiccated vegeta- tion or human accidents may have caused the widespread fires.

However, with the widely distributed geo- graphic pattern, climate appears to be the predominant cause. Following the fires, air circulation patterns apparently lofted the exposed soil up along the ridges outside of the basin. Dincauze described burial of the Neville component by aeolian sediments which continued to accumulate during the Stark occupation at the Neville site beginning before 7, and ending before 6, yrs BP.

The charred layers at Pequot Cedar Swamp and other New England sites hint at several episodic dry periods during the middle Holocene. Environmental data recovered from archaeological sites document what was available for human use during the middle Holocene. Regionally, mast trees such as oak, hickory, and chestnut played a significant role in the temperate forests during this interval. Watts concluded that the drier climate from before 8, yrs BP to about 5, yrs BP favored oak tree species.

This statement is reinforced by the archaeological assemblages. White pine and oak dominated the fuelwood selection at the Templeton site. Hickory became part of the oak and pine assemblage for the Middle Archaic period at Dill Farm Pfeiffer OAk, hornbeam, elm, alder, sour gum, and white pine were found in association with the hickory.

McWeeney, personal research documents the presence of hickory trees in southern New England region McWeeney thousands of years earlier than estimates based on the pollen Davis , Holly, ifit is flex opaca identified from the 2 Baker site, suggests a northern range extension for that tree during the middle Holocene, and provides another indication of warming.

To date, I have not identified chestnut charcoal from any Connecticut sites older than 2, yrs BP. This lack of evidence concurs with Davis’ pollen interpretation for a delayed migration of chestnut into New England. McWeeney, personal research. The above mentioned archaeological examples clearly demonstrate contribution of identifying the charcoal for environmental reconstruction purposes.

Detailed sediment analyses and AMS dates bracketing changes at every archaeological site would also make an enormous contribution to correlating dry episodes, wind activated intervals, and periods of erosion with settlement patterns. Not only did temperature and moisture regimes change, but also natural disasters such as fires, storms, volcanic eruptions Zielinski et al. The rise in spruce pollen in New Hampshire around 2, years ago also suggests cooler temperatures Davis et al. Plant macrofossils preserved in the Pequot Cedar Swamp cores McWeeney provide evidence for the appearance of numerous additional deciduous and conifer trees during the late Holocene.

Charcoal from local fires preserved oak, beech, elm, maple, and hickory to provide a picture of the terrestrial environment during the last 5, years. Atlantic white cedar began growing in the swamp during the late Holocene when water level fluctuations became less extreme McWeeney The plant remains from archaeological sites provide critical information for reconstructing the diversity of local prehistoric environments.

The s excavation at the Boylston Street Fishweir Bailey and Barghoom documents native plant selection and use of their environment. Based on the recovered stakes and wattle, 17 different taxa were used to construct the weir, portions of which date to 4, yrs BP Newby and Webb Red oak, beech, sassafras, and alder dominated the assemblage, with occasional use of sycamore, aspen, white oak, dogwood, bayberry, larch, and hemlock.

The identifi- cation of larch and aspen presents a quandary, since modem aspen and larch. Selection of the saplings appears to have been based on availability, not that a specific tree type was favored for stakes. Oak and pine continue as the dominant fuelwood choices into the Terminal Archaic period 3, to 3, yrs BP based on the charcoal identified from the Millbury site in Rhode Island McWeeney Ia.

Largy identified charred seeds from the Millbury botanical assemblage that dramatically expand our knowledge of plants growing near the site: ragweed, goosefoot, grasses, purslane, blueberry, huckleberry, brambles, and hickory nuts. Yet, the Terminal Archaic archaeological assemblage does not provide evidence of climatic cooling that was noted around 3, yrs BP by Deevey and Flint Significant evidence for a rarely recorded return to cold temperatures comes from clay deposits discovered along the Quinnipiac River, north of New Haven.

The presence of fir needles provides a strong indicator of cool, moist conditions in Connecticut at that time, possibly refining the date for Deevey and Flint’s “Little Ice Age” around yrs BP.

Charcoal from two trees with a more southerly range has been identified from archaeological features from New Jersey, coastal New York and Connecticut. Sourwood normally grows in Florida and Louisiana and in the Piedmont Zone as far north as Pennsylvania Fernald McWeeney, reports to CRM contractors e.

Ceci infers that the presence of sourwood is due to native people bringing the wood to the site as an artifact or for medicinal purposes. Alternatively, it can be suggested that the presence of sourwood at three regional sites indicate it was growing there, and represents a northern range extension made possible during the global climatic warming period. Black walnut, the second taxa found north of its normal range at the Morgan site, in Rocky Hill Lavin , came from a cultural feature with several deciduous woods such as sycamore and hickory McWeeney I b.

A short distance north, up river, at the Burnham Shepard site Bendremer , similar wood charcoal was identified, including elm, hickory, hornbeam, ash, tupelo, cherry, and butternut. No black walnut was identified. The modem range for black walnut in New England continues to find this taxa restricted to the coastal areas as far north as southern Massachusetts Little These black walnut specimens may be related to intentional planting during the Little Climatic Warming period.

The new climatic conditions allowed their survival in the north; then human cultivation encouraged their continued growth. Significantly, the advent of maize horticulture along the floodplain of the Connecticut River, as evidenced from remains found at the Morgan site and Burnham Shepard did not eradicate the typical floodplain taxa as was found in Tennessee. In that case, Cridlebaugh noted that a shift to upland taxa became necessary following intense levels of clearing the floodplain for maize agriculture.

It may have been that maize agriculture was successful along the floodplain due to the warming climate and a decrease in spring and fall flooding that threaten crops today. Stratigraphic analyses and sedimentation records remain to be explored to determine if this was the case in southern New England. Combining climate proxy data from the Greenland ice cores, oxygen isotope studies, pollen and plant macrofossils, as well as the sediments from lakes, ponds and swamps can make increasingly reliable inter- pretations.

The botanical assemblages from cultural features at archaeological sites help refine the local environmental picture, and complement the other available data. Evidence for several global climate changes has been recorded in Connecticut and elsewhere in southern New England, based on lake level changes, sediment anomalies, shifts in pollen accumulation rates, and range extensions for various plant macrofossils.

However, we need more details on the sedi- ments from archaeological sites as well as more AMS dating of individual plant remains to further refine the picture of the past. Any errors are my own. Barghoorn, Jr. Johnson, pp. Philips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. Bendremer, J. University of Connecticut. Birks, J. Walker, L. Cwynar, S.

Johnsen, K. Knudsen, J. Lowe, B. Journal of Quaternary Science 13 4 Brackenridge, G. Thomas, L. Conkey, and J. Bryson, R. Baerreis, and W. Dort, Jr. Knox, Jr. University of Kansas Press. Ceci, L. Clark, G. Geomorphology Cridlebaugh, P. Cushing, E. Wright, Jr. Frey, pp. Dahl-Jensen, D. Mosegaard, N.

Gundestrup, G. Clow, S. Johnsen, A. Hansen, N. Science Davis, M. Ecology University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Spear, and L. Shane Holocene Climate of New England. Quaternary Research Davis, R. Jacobson, Jr. Deevey, E. Flint Postglacial Hypsithennal Interval. Delcourt, P. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Springer-Verlag, New York. Quaternary Science Reviews 6 2 : Peabody Museum Monographs No. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Quarterly Review of Archaeology 10 2 : Dorian, C.

Fernald, M. Discorides Press, Portland, Oregon. Funk, R. Persimmon Press, Buffalo, New York. Gaudreau, D. Nicholas, pp. Plenum, New York. Godwin, Sir H. Green, D. Journal of Biogeography Grove, J. Routledge, London and New York. Jackson, S. Jacobson, G. Webb, Ill, and E. K-3 edited by W. Ruddiman and H.

Kellogg, D. Unpublished Ph. Kneller, M. Quaternary Science Review Larabee, P. Largy, T. Lavin, L. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut Little, A. Volume I: Conifers and Important Hardwoods. Publication No. MacDonald, G. Geology Journal of Quaternary Science Submitted to Canadian Journal of Botany Martin, P. American Journal of Science Mayle, F.

Levesque, and L. McAndrews, J. In Quaternary Paleoecology, edited by E. Cushing and H. Yale Press, New Haven. McWeeney, L. Ia Charcoal Identification for the Millbury Site. Report prepared for the Albert Morgan Archaeological Society. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Appendix D I. Research Report Series No.

Department of Historic Resources, Richmond, Virginia. In Coastally Restricted Forests, edited by A. Laderman, pp. Oxford University Press, New York. Miller, N. Journal of Arnold Arboretum 60 2 : Moeller, R. North American Archaeologist 5 3 Newby, P. In review for Quaternary Research. Quaternary Research 41 North American Pollen Data Base n. Peteet, D. Daniels, L. Heusser, J. Vogel, J. Southon, and D. Vogel, D. Nelson, J. Southon, R. Nickmann, and L. Journal of Quaternary Science 9 2 : Pfeiffer, J.

Rhodora 88 Ridge, J. Besonen, M. Brochu, S. Brown, J. Callahan, G. Cook, R. Nicholson, N. Thompson, B. Fowler, and P. G’4ographie Physique et Quaternaire 53 1 Robinson, B. Robinson, J. Petersen, and A. Robinson, pp. Occasional Publications in Maine Archaeology No. Sneddon, L. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Boston. Spear, R. Davis, and L. Ecological Monographs Stea, R. Boreas Taylor, K. Lamorey, G. Doyle, R. Alley, P. M Grootes, P. Mayewski, J.

White, and L. Nature Thorson, R. Geoarchaeology Watts, W. Ecological Monographs 49 4 Porter, pp. Webb, R. Anderson and T. Webb, III. Webb, T. Bartlein, and J. K 3 edited by W.

Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado. Whitehead, D. Ecological Monographs 51 4 Yu, Z. McAndrews, U. Zielinski, G. Mayewski, L. Meeker, S. Whitlow, M. Twickler, M. Morrison, D. Meese, A. Gow, R. Alley Record of Volcanism Since B. The Connecticut sample includes dates. Connecticut dates are compared to radiocarbon chronologies from five other Northeastern states New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland and West Virginia and southern Ontario.

Connecticut and other New England states have bi-modal distributions of radiocarbon dates after BP. Maize may not have been as significant to prehistoric subsistence in New England as in the Middle Atlantic region, and Late Woodland population increases were apparently less pronounced in New England.

These included only forty-five dates from archaeological sites and five geological dates. Only three dates were from Connecticut archaeological sites. The first Connecticut dates were two samples submitted by Suggs from the Manakaway site in Greenwich. David Thompson submitted the third Connecticut archaeological date from the Binette site, Naugatuck.

In the three decades following Jordan’s early survey, radiocarbon dating became the most frequently utilized method for developing absolute chronologies for prehistoric sites and associated artifacts.

Table I assembles published and unpublished radiocarbon dates from Connecticut archaeological sites. These dates derive from cultural resource management surveys, doctoral studies, museum research files, academic institutions, and investigations by professional and avocational archaeologists. This list is intended as a research tool for cross-referencing radiocarbon samples, archaeological sites, artifact assemblages, and archaeological reports.

However, this paper poses the hypothesis that radiocarbon dates also reflect broader prehistoric cultural processes. Radiocarbon dating is commonly employed by archaeologists to evaluate prehistoric culture changes among material artifacts such as projectile points, ceramic types, burial practices, and subsistence patterns particularly the origins of agriculture.

For example, all prehistoric peoples built hearths for warmth and cooking. More dated hearths might reflect more people during specific prehistoric periods. Perhaps questionable radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites also provide chronological information for human activities in an environment over time.

Charcoal might reflect periods of site occupations even if not directly associated with artifacts that archaeologists wish to date. Cultural factors probably influenced archaeological site formation, kinds of features constructed and preserved, and associated radiometric dates. For example, throughout the Paleo-Indian and Archaic periods it is assumed that Native Americans hunted and gathered naturally occurring animal, plant and fish resources.

Human populations were mobile in order to exploit highly pro- ductive seasonal resources, such as changes in animal ranges, fish spawning runs, and the differential ripening schedules of greens, roots, fruits, seeds and nut resources.

Many archaeological sites in Connecticut were reoccupied over thousands of years, suggesting favorable environmental conditions at particular locations. Woodland period agriculture involved production of new food resources that might have led to lower seasonal mobility.

Agriculture is also often associated with human population increases e. Sedentary agricultural lifestyles might have led to new types of deep storage features that were conducive to preservation of charcoal and other organic remains e. Greater numbers of features might have been associated with agricultural subsistence patterns such as food storage facilities, postholes from permanent structures, middens resulting from annual or pro- longed seasonal occupations, and perhaps palisades or other fortifications.

Therefore, adoption of agricul- tural subsistence strategies might be indicated by increasing numbers of radiocarbon dated features than during pre-agricultural times. Many environmental factors also effect carbon preservation.

Because charcoal and other organic matter physically decay over time, fewer and smaller carbon samples are usually available from Paleo- Indian and Archaic period sites than from more recent Woodland period sites. Geological processes have destroyed archaeological sites throughout the Holocene period of human occupations.

Sea levels have risen and have inundated coastal sites. Rivers and streams have eroded valleys and terraces. Geomorphic proc- esses have probably destroyed a greater number of older archaeological sites, and associated charcoal samples, than recent sites. Carbon physics and chemistry also influence radiocarbon dates as valid chronological indicators of human occupations at archaeological sites. Bristlecone pine calibrations Suess ; Stuiver et al. Recent data from Greenland ice cores and uranium-thorium dates from corals and from other sources have extended the cali- bration range to include the Paleo-Indian period e.

By Paleo-Indian times, the magnitude of error for radiocarbon dates is more than 2, years earlier than actual calendric dates. Radiocarbon dates are usually reported as BP dates radiocarbon years before present, and are converted to calen- dric dates BC or AD following calibration.

Shells, bone and short-lived plant materials have often provided inaccurate radiometric dates. Accelerator mass spectrometry AMS dating techniques have greatly relieved problems of small carbon samples and differences among dated materials. C 13 isotope corrections can also be applied to plant samples with a C4 pathways, including maize and other cultigens. Radiometric dates also reflect the research designs of individual archaeologists who selectively excavate sites, submit samples, and publish results from radiometric dating to support specific research questions.

Sets of radiocarbon dates might reflect biases among researchers rather than unbiased samples of archaeological sites or features. Many of these factors were considered when assembling radiocarbon data from Connecticut. Inter- pretations of the Connecticut radiometric chronology were aided by comparisons with other radiocarbon sequences from Northeastern North America. Until about , archaeological sites were recorded by Smithsonian inventory numbers identifying the state number e.

Since approximately , the Connecticut Historical Commission and the Office of the State Archaeologist have inventoried archaeological sites by an alphabetical town number and site series number e.

The Connecticut radiometric database derives from combined efforts of numerous archaeologists and research institutions. The Connecticut database presently includes radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites Table I. Radiocarbon dates are listed from older to more recent dates. Information was collected from published sources, unpublished archaeological survey reports on file with the Connecticut Historical Commission, Ph. C C 12 corrections were selected for this list when this information was available.

Laboratory numbers are reported on Table I. Connecticut site inventory numbers have been compiled for named sites from computerized site files of the Connecticut Historical Commission. Radiocarbon dates are also presented for twenty-two sites that either have not yet received site numbers or for which site forms have not yet been filed with the Connecticut Historical Commission. Towns and physiographic regions associated with archaeological sites have also been reported on Table I.

Archaeological information presented on Table I includes site names, features or site proveniences of dated samples, and the material submitted for dating e.

Projectile point types, ceramic types, cultigens, and other important cultural materials associated with radiocarbon dates are included on Table I. Typological information for artifacts often varies between archaeological reports. The expected prehistoric cultural periods of artifacts are also listed.

Published and unpublished references for radiocarbon dates are presented below. Table 2 summarizes the radiocarbon database from Connecticut towns and physiographic regions. Table 2 describes the numbers of archaeological sites with radiocarbon dates, the numbers of individual dates from towns, and the range of dates from towns. Only 34 percent of Connecticut towns 57 towns have dated prehistoric archaeological sites. Most towns have few dates that only encompass segments of the prehistoric chronological sequence.

Ledyard has the most dates 41 dates largely resulting from cultural resource surveys sponsored by the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation. The Northwest Highlands encompass an area of The highest point in Connecticut is feet elevation on Mount Frissel at the northwest comer of the state.

The average elevation for all towns in the Northwest Highlands is feet above sea level O’Brien Mountains and rolling plateaus drain into the narrow valleys, including the Shepaug River tributary to the Housatonic River, and the Farmington River that drains into the Connecticut River. An aggressive program of archaeological excavations and radiocarbon dating began in western Connecticut during by the Shepaug Valley Archaeological Society Swigart Swigart reported 10 radiocarbon dates from the Northwest Highlands and II dates from towns in the adjacent Western Uplands.

The Institute has continued to support archaeological research projects. The present sample of radiocarbon dates from the Northwest Highlands includes 32 dates from 20 archaeological sites among six towns Table 2. This is the smallest sample of radiocarbon dates from any region of Connecticut. This date derived from an organic sample and might be of geological rather than human origin.

Western Uplands The Western Uplands is a region of rolling hills and valleys. The uplands are also head- waters to several smaller rivers that flow south into Long Island Sound including the Norwalk, Saugatuck, Mill and Pequonnock Rivers. The Western Uplands includes The average elevation of towns in the Western Uplands is feet above sea level O’Brien The Western Uplands presently have a sample of 61 radiocarbon dates from 26 sites among II towns.

McWeeney’s three earliest carbon samples between 10, to BP probably relate to Paleo-Indian occupations at the Templeton site. All of these Paleo- Indian charcoal samples were identified as oak or hickory wood, suggesting early Holocene expansion of temperate hardwoods into the uplands of Connecticut by Paleo-Indian times McWeeney A total of 36 radiocarbon dates were procured from sites along the Connecticut sections of the transmission corridor, including 14 dates from seven Western Upland sites, 21 dates from three sites in the Western Coastal Slope region, and one date from the Northwest Highlands.

Other cultural resource management surveys have also contributed substantial numbers of radiocarbon dates from the Western Uplands. Seven dates are available from the Newtown Sewer site in Newtown Jones et al.

David Thompson , , personal communication, has maintained a tradition of Archaeological Society of Connecticut field research in the Western Uplands, reporting six dates from the region. Western Coastal Slope Long Island Sound provides rich environments of marine fisheries, abundant coastal shellfish, and estuary habitats with diverse plant and fish nursery communities.

Sea levels have risen throughout the Holocene period of human occupations. The shoreline of Long Island Sound was approximately 40 m below modern sea levels at approximately 12, BP, 25 m lower between approximately and BP,5 m lower at BP, and approximately 2 m lower at BP Gayes and Bokuniewicz Rising seas have destroyed older archaeological sites along former coastlines, and have eroded headlands and inundated river valleys that may have been important locations for human occupations.

A total of 60 radi- ocarbon dates has been reported from 19 archaeological sites within five towns Table 2. Wiegand has accumulated 34 pub- lished and unpublished radiocarbon dates from nine sites in the region Wiegand , , and personal communication. In addition, excavations conducted along the Iroquois Gas Transmission System included 21 radiocarbon dates from three sites in Milford Millis et al.

The final checklist of vascular plants for Napa County consists of 1, taxa, including 1, native taxa from different families. Alarmingly, native taxa in Napa County were listed as rare or threatened to some degree. The results of this study demonstrate that for its size, Napa County contains remarkably high levels of plant diversity as well as high concentrations of special status taxa as compared to other areas within the California Floristic Province, the State of California as a whole, and other regions within global biodiversity hotspots characterized by Mediterranean climates.

In particular, this analysis highlights the floristic significance of Napa County at global and local levels, and thus, this review is an important step to help promote and facilitate long term research and conservation planning in the area.

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Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Peter Raven. Related Papers. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic 2nd edition : checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns.

Journal of Vegetation Science Plant names in vegetation databases – a neglected source of bias: Plant names in vegetation databases. Phytotaxa A checklist and floristic summary of the vascular plants of Napa County, California. Annals of Botany Phylogenetic studies favour the unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum Poaceae : a combined nuclear, plastid and morphological analysis, and nomenclatural combinations in Cenchrus.