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Toaster-appliance manufacturers seek to internet-enable their products to see how often they are used and gather other data engineers will use to improve the design. Same with internet-enabled home thermostats and even garage door openers. Your front door can be internet-enabled and opened by your smart phone. A major purpose of these internet-enabled appliances is to gather data on how you interact with these appliances, you know, to find a way to sell you more stuff.
The other purpose is to help build artificially intelligent systems. GE has an AI program. Google has one too. AI is the next phase of product development. So these devices may not store your words for posterity, but they are using them to learn how we speak, how we phrase things, and eventually how we think.
Is this spying? Does it matter to you? Reducing energy usage has long been a focus for building facility and operations managers. Not only are costs and meeting codes a concern, but so is measuring up to the social expectations of being a good corporate citizen. Many energy-saving technologies come with large monetary outlays and often require longer term planning. But there are also a host of solutions that can quickly, easily and inexpensively deliver significant savings.
Now add all those areas that are unoccupied after hours—the energy costs can really add up. If budgeting is a challenge, start small by installing some occupancy sensors in the least occupied spaces and then slowly expand coverage. The additions will ultimately pay for themselves many times over. If more light is needed, it can be turned up. Not only do dimmers save money by reducing power sent to bulbs, but they can also extend bulb life.
Incandescent and halogen When used with LED bulbs, the savings can be greater still. While we usually enjoy having natural sunlight coming through our windows, the.
It is possible to easily manage natural light for energy savings with automatic motorized shades, which can be programmed to raise and lower to keep lighting and temperature at optimum levels.
So, even if equipment is in use hours per day, the power strips draw energy 24 hours per day. When you consider that many of the devices that are plugged into the power strips are left on unnecessarily, you realize how much energy is wasted. OS power strips have a motion sensor that senses when a room or area is no longer in use and automatically shuts off power to individual outlets.
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How 3D CAD promotes a functioning digital thread The work toward a common digital thread is moving forward as industry addresses the challenges of developing end-to-end, readily accessible information on systems.
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Senior Editor Lisa Eitel leitel wtwhmedia. David Miyares dmiyares wtwhmedia. Marketing Coordinator Lexi Korsok lkorsok wtwhmedia. Identify Material 2. Request Sample 3. Send DXF Drawing 4. Electric cylinders are clean-in-place compatible The easier it is to clean a machine in food and beverage applications, the better.
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They are designed with roller screw and ball screw options. Forces range up to lbf The smooth-body hygienic design eliminates the need for actuator guarding fixtures, which simplifies machine design and lowers costs.
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In particular, North America and Europe have strict regulations for safety in these potentially dangerous environments. This also applies to the safety of employees in the processing plants and employers who fail to make adequate safety considerations can face large fines.
Not only can these authorities enforce these in the case of accidents, they can also be enforced during regular inspections. In food processing plants, there are many dangerous machines for which plant managers should follow safety regulations, or the plants may face closure or high fines.
This is clearly a dangerous environment for employees to work in, however as these machines are essential for use, the key concept is the management of risk. In the s, the increase in heavy machinery such as the creation of the steel press led to increased safety guards. Since then, many safety conscious companies undertake a risk analysis in the initial stages of machine development. In the case of decanters, it is not possible to remove the risk, but it is possible to mitigate the risk to an acceptable level by putting safety guards such as enclosures or emergency stops into place.
As companies become more knowledgeable about regulations and regulations become more stringent, the need for retrofitting old equipment with additional safety measures may arise. Although it may seem instinctive, where there is a dangerous moving machine, the safest answer is not always to shut it away behind an enclosure or barrier.
In the food processing industry, companies should consult functional safety experts who have experience in the sector. The experts will for example suggest equipment such as light grid, which perform an emergency stop on a machine when the light grid is broken by an object.
These devices are more appropriate for the food processing sector than using physical guards or barriers as they allow easier access for maintenance and washdown, essential for hygiene in food processing plants.
From the safety of single pieces of equipment to line safety and then plant safety, plant managers need to be aware of what they can do to mitigate risks. Plant managers not only have a responsibility to put in place an accurate safety strategy to protect their employees, but they also need to protect their businesses from costly infringements of worldwide safety regulations, as proven in the many cases gone by.
DW ABB abb. We have 60 years of developing and delivering productivity solutions. Our product offerings include built-to-need components, price alternative components, electric actuators, specialty workholding clamps, and motion control robots. From single actuator solutions to multi-unit systems, PHD and Yamaha Robotics can provide complete solutions for practically any application requirement.
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Applications include camera and communication systems on construction, mining and agricultural equipment. It can also be used in rail and mass transit communication systems and for ruggedized factory automation. The field installable and repairable Max M12 offers discrete connections that seal in harsh environments without requiring overmolds. They are backward compatible and can be mated with any standard M12 connector with the same indexing.
All versions of this connector are IP67 or above, making them dust- and waterproof, resistant to high-pressure wash downs and water immersion.
They are designed to endure a salt spray test for up to hours. This enhanced Max M12 PCB header mates to an in-line that can withstand connector-to-cable retention forces of N and contact retention forces to N.
The metal version is required for shielding. Both the 4- and 5-pin configurations are available with A, B, D and P polarity codes. Additional pin counts and codes are available upon request. All components and systems are conceived and designed in-house. Our industry experts and product specialists develop innovative products and efficient solutions for high-quality, cost-effective production with most likely, enhanced machine performance.
Throughout the globe, our production facilities share one common goal; quality. We take great pride in both our products and solutions. Direct drive offers more tractive force The MCR-T radial piston motor, for compact tracked loaders and other tracked vehicles, comes in frame size For improved efficiency, especially over long distances, the MCR-T units also allow high travel speeds at low diesel engine rotational speeds.
The compact dimensions mean that the motor completely fits in the track width of compact loaders. The MCR-T can withstand higher radial forces with its improved load distribution.
The optimal position of the drive shaft allows the use of a simpler sprocket in comparison to conventional radial piston motors. An integrated flushing valve supports the cooling of the oil when used in closed hydraulic circuits, which therefore also lengthens the service life. MCR-T radial piston motors are for continuous high rotational speeds so that compact tracked loaders can also cover longer distances.
With the control valve integrated in the motor, the operator can gently and smoothly shift between travel speeds with the soft shift mode operating in both directions. The motor then runs with reduced displacement, reducing oil flow in the circuit and improving system efficiency. Additionally, the direct drive of the MCR-T results in greater efficiency and lower noise than typical gearbox-based solutions.
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With this addition, SmartFlex Conveyors are now available in 4 standard widths: 65 mm 2. Other sizes that can be specially ordered include: 45 mm 1. These conveyors are engineered to exact customer specifications and shipped in sub-assemblies for fast and easy installation.
With the Online Configurator D-Tools, users can design and engineer simple or complex conveyors to meet their needs in minutes. This configuration tool delivers a complete 3D CAD assembly model for instant validation of fit. Accessories such as infeed and exit powered transfers allow smooth end transfers for products as small as 3 in.
For additional flexibility to move product up or down and around equipment, the SmartFlex Helical Curve, Spiral, and Alpine conveyors are available. The SmartFlex Helical Curve allows incline or decline movement through corners and straights, and provides capability for vertical incline with minimal space. Both the helical and spiral conveyors have chain design that allows the conveyor to maintain speeds and loads through the angled curve.
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They accomplish multiple manufacturing processes, including accepting roll-fed paper material in a continuous motion and automatically splicing products. Not surprisingly, as machine complexity increased so did the design and development time required. Smarter machines with more automation, communication and integration capabilities entailed more programming and documentation time for the engineers. The lengthy pre-production phase extended company investment and delayed delivery of machines to customers.
With new machines capable. To further help streamline the machine design process, Joa relies on several design-software programs. The engineers use templates within the electrical schematic designs as a base and then. A schematics generator then helps create documentation needed for manufacturing, purchasing, panel building, modeling and more. This bidirectional data transfer helps improve startup time by reducing the need for manually re-entering control data from engineering tools into the Rockwell Software Studio software.
This allows any qualified customer engineer to open up a portal with a VPN connection, access the HMI to see controller operating data, and render the necessary changes. All software on the machines is running on VMWare virtualized servers using thin clients. There is no longer a need for a large-capacity, expensive server, and the virtual environment provides a robust, secure and IoT-ready architecture using fewer servers to run the HMI and other software.
Although Joa customizes each of its machines, the various design-software systems let the machine builder standardize much of its machine design process. With more leadtime in the early design stages, customers benefit too. They have more opportunity to refine system features, ensuring greater satisfaction after delivery. Faster delivery and commissioning is a competitive advantage for the business.
Looking ahead, Joa plans to build on the synergy between EPLAN and Rockwell Automation as their global-market footprint grows and more customers embrace big data. Most of its customers now have some cloud-based capabilities, and they are looking for more ways to capture key data in smart machines. DW Rockwell rockwellautomation.
Up to chine design ndardized nt can be sta te n co se a b ta da odules. Vacuworx, Tulsa, Okla. The SS 2 atta chment lets The newest addition, the SS 2 vacuum lifting sysa machine lift st eel plate, tem, reportedly improves the versatility of the venersaw cut concrete able skid steer.
The SS 2 attachment lets a machine , granite and marble slab lift steel plate, saw cut concrete, granite and marble s, landscape pavers and othe slabs, landscape pavers and other materials. And, acr materials. The SS 2 can also be used with a variety of mini-excavators or small cranes using a clevis-hook connection.
The vacuum system, which features a hydraulically driven vacuum pump, readily mates to any skid steer. Quick-connect hydraulic hoses and a universal mounting plate make attachment quick and simple, which helps maximize productivity.
The compact, aluminum design weighs just 98 lb without mounting plate but has a lifting capacity up to 2, lb. The vacuum pump operates using the auxiliary hydraulics from the host machine minimum 10 gpm required with maximum pressure of 3, psi.
The vacuum pump maintains a constant vacuum in a pressure reservoir. When activated, the system pulls a vacuum between the integrated 24 x 24 in. Tough elastomer-pad seals on the perimeter of the vacuum pad cover the material to be lifted and create the necessary suction.
The vacuum seal holds until the operator activates the release — even in the event of a power failure. The SS 2 is suited for floor, sidewalk, driveway, road and landscaping projects. Not only is vacuum lifting a safer alternative than hooks and chains, said Vacuworx officials, it also increases output and productivity.
According to the company, vacuum-lifting systems can handle up to 10 times more material than conventional methods, are safer for workers, and help reduce the risk of accidents and lower payroll and insurance costs. Related Vacuworx vacuum and hydraulic lifting systems are designed for many applications and lift capacities. Standard models lift a variety of materials including steel, plastic and ductile iron pipe, concrete pipe, pre-cast concrete slabs, culverts and road barriers, saw-cut concrete, and steel plate.
Lifters can be attached to excavators and backhoes with or without a coupler system , wheel or track type loaders, cranes, pipe layers, skid steers, forklifts and knuckle booms and can also be mounted for a variety of in-plant applications.
DW Vacuworx vacuworx. Neocortex G2R thanks to its nce can artificial intellige een drink differentiate betw s as well as tie brands and varie cans faster used and unused kers. Robotic flexibly sorts and restocks airline beverage trays The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell from Universal Robotics soon to be Universal Logic — and no relation to Universal Robots is now working in its fourth real-world application.
The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell Neocortex G2R for short automates the normally manual task of unloading and restocking airline beverage carts after flights end and the carts return to airline catering kitchens. More specifically, the Neocortex G2R flexibly sorts and replenishes myriad ounce beverage cans for payback on retrofits or new installations in less than a year. Airline-hub catering kitchens spend copious time replenishing beverages consumed in-flight from 9.
Pitching already-opened The Neocortex G2R Cell handles sensor connection, calibration, PLC and robot communication, path planning, obstacle avoidance, vision guidance, inspection, database management, and learning. Airline beve rage replen ishment is the fourth proven applic ation area of the Neoco rtex G2R Cell — with the others bei ng dynamic m achine tending, consu mer products order fulfillment, a nd pharmace uticalunit picking.
It also determines cans that are opened and partially used, or unused and returned. If the can is unused, Neocortex identifies the brand by directing the robot to pick it up and read its label. It then reuses these cans for the next new drawer it assembles — supplementing with new cans as needed based on the prescribed assortment. The Neocortex G2R Cell is the first plugand-play robotic work cell for high-mix applications that must also handle high-volume applications scaled to a human form factor.
Neocortex artificial intelligence provides humanlike flexibility at speeds far faster and more consistent than manual labor. So the Neocortex G2R Cell can handle cartons, bottles, tubes, bags, or cans for up to 1, picks per hour. SmartUQ is a software tool for uncertainty quantification UQ and analytics that heightens fidelity of engineering and systems analysis by taking account of real-world variability and probabilistic behavior.
Uncertainty quantification is the science of quantifying, characterizing, tracing and managing uncertainty in both computational and real-world systems. UQ seeks to address the problems associated with incorporating real-world variability and probabilistic behavior into engineering and systems analysis.
Nominal—that is, idealized—as opposed to real-world simulations and tests answer the question: What will happen when the system is subjected to a single set of inputs? UQ moves this question into the real world by asking: What is likely to happen when the system is subjected to a range of uncertain and variable inputs?
UQ got its start at the intersection of mathematics, statistics and engineering. Drawing together knowledge from each of those fields has yielded a family of system-agnostic capabilities that require no knowledge of the inner workings of a system under study to make predictions about its likely behavior.
Thus, a method that works on an engineering system may be equally applicable to a financial problem that exhibits similar behavior.
This makes it possible for many different industries to benefit from advances in UQ. Why UQ? Uncertainty is part of every system. It can arise from variations in measurement accuracies, material properties, use scenarios, modeling approximations and unknown future events. Uncertainty in model Most simulations are deterministic: the simulation response s are provided based on a given set of model inputs. Simulation results obtained from these input conditions are then compared with criteria derived from a legacy of physical test data.
However, the practice of using extreme model conditions in this way may well fail to model reality with fidelity, and can easily overlook and omit various sources of uncertainties. Moreover, by not accounting for simulation uncertainties, the next steps may be difficult to decipher, as there can be numerous reasons for lack of agreement between simulation results and legacy testbased criteria. UQ: Probabilistic, not deterministic In contrast to that deterministic approach, UQ is a probabilistic approach that systematically accounts for sources of simulation uncertainties.
UQ methods are rapidly being adopted by engineers and modeling professionals across a wide range of industries because they can solve previously unanswerable questions. Quantify confidence in predictions. UQ methodology for statistical calibration. Source: SmartUQ Why now? As computational resources have become dramatically more available and affordable, and simulation and testing have grown increasingly sophisticated and revealing, it has become possible and feasible to accurately predict behavior of more and more real-world system designs.
Today, the frontier of engineering design has advanced to rapidly predicting the behaviors of systems when subjected to uncertain inputs.
Monte Carlo methods require generating and evaluating large numbers of system variations, thus becoming computationally too expensive to apply to large-scale problems. More recent methods such as those incorporated in SmartUQ have made UQ easier to apply to small system designs, and feasible and affordable to use on large ones.
Sources and types of uncertainty Uncertainty is an inherent part of the real world, SmartUQ notes. No two physical experiments ever produce exactly the same output values, and many relevant inputs may be unknown or unmeasurable. Uncertainty affects almost all aspects of engineering modeling and design.
Engineers have long dealt with measurement errors, uncertain material properties and unknown design demand profiles by including safety factors. But deeper understanding and quantification of the sources of uncertainty will yield step-function gains in fidelity and quantified confidence of decision-making.
Uncertainties are broadly classified into two categories: aleatoric and epistemic. Thus, it may be considered inherent in a system, and parameters with aleatory uncertainty are best represented using probability distributions. Examples are the results of rolling dice or radioactive decay.
Thus, epistemic uncertainty could conceivably be reduced by gathering the right information, but often is not because of the expense or difficulty of doing so. Examples include batch material properties, manufactured dimensions and load profiles. Common uncertainty sources in simulation and testing Any system input including initial conditions, boundary conditions and transient forcing April These inputs may vary in large, recordable but unknown ways.
This is often the case with operating conditions, design geometries and configurations, loading profiles, weather, and human operator inputs. Uncertain inputs may also be theoretically constant or follow known relationships but have some inherent uncertainty.
This is often the case with variations in measured inputs, manufacturing tolerances and material properties. Uncertainties in simulation and testing appear in boundary conditions, initial conditions, system parameters, and in the systems, models and calculations themselves. They fall into four categories: 1 Uncertain inputs. Uncertain inputs—Any system input including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and transient forcing functions may be subject to uncertainty.
These inputs may vary in large, recordable, but unknown ways. This is often the case with measured inputs, manufacturing tolerances and material property variations. Model form and parameter uncertainty— Every model is an approximation of reality. Modeling uncertainty is the result of assumptions, approximations and errors made when creating the model. Using gravity as an example, the Newtonian model of gravity had errors in the model form that were corrected by general relativity. Thus, there is model form uncertainty in the predictions made using the Newtonian model of gravity.
In addition, the parameters of both these models, such as gravitational acceleration, are subject to uncertainty and error. This uncertainty is often the result of errors in measurements or estimations of physical properties and can be reduced by using calibration to adjust the relevant parameters as more information becomes available. Computational and numerical uncertainty— To run simulations and solve many mathematical models, it is necessary to simplify or approximate the underlying equations, and this introduces computational errors such as truncation and convergence error.
For the same system and model, these errors can vary among different numerical solvers, and are dependent on the approximations and settings used for each solver. Further numerical errors are introduced by the limitations of machine precision and rounding errors inherent in digital systems. Uncertainty in physical testing—In physical testing, uncertainty arises from uncontrolled or unknown inputs, measurement errors, aleatoric phenomena, and limitations in the design and implementation of tests such as maximum resolution and spatial averaging.
These uncertainties result in noisy experimental data, and can necessitate replication and reproduction of scientific experiments to attempt to reduce the uncertainties in desired measurements. This requires a high degree of confidence in the relevance of simulation results to the real world.
For engineers, the benefit of UQ is to become better aware and informed of the uncertainties present in simulation results when using them to make critical design decisions. Better informed decision-making leads to better product development outcomes.
It was developed in cooperation with leading companies in the plastics industry. It is easy to operate and is suitable to experts and users without CAD know-how. In the Viewer, calculations take place quickly and precisely. During the process, the wall thickness check also detects areas with heavy changes in wall thickness. Due to the fully automatic calculation of the projected area, the clamp force and thus the machine design can be determined with just a few mouse clicks without any CAD knowledge.
Moreover, the Viewer has dynamic cutting as well as measuring functions. Analysis functions are supplemented by geometric model comparison, to indicate differences between models of different formats. Additionally, for DMU examinations, there is a function to determine collisions in assemblies as well as to calculate clearances between all single parts or components and all surrounding parts.
The latest version enables the creation of explosion views that can be animated as well as drawing creation as DWG files. Floating licenses with a borrowing function enable a simple, flexible use of the software within and outside of companies.
Drive web server access module. Sinamics V20 Smart Access web server module mounts directly onto a drive, transforming a. This module provides a WI-FI hot spot, which facilitates setup, programming, commissioning, production monitoring and maintenance on machines and production equipment.
The module has a simple, embedded graphical user interface GUI. No separate app is required, nor is a written operator manual needed. Communication distance is up to meters, enabling access to drives located in difficult to reach areas. A built-in, multi-color LED quickly shows status readout. In use, the Sinamics V20 Smart Access module requires only a few steps to set-up and no installation or download of additional software is needed. Users can monitor drive status including speed, current, voltage, temperature and power, as well as drive servicing, with an overview of alarms, faults and individual values.
Fault codes can be transferred with e-mail to a local service provider. Parameter adjustment, motor test functions and full data backup, storage and sharing with fast firmware downloads can all be accomplished with the web server. DW Siemens Digital Factory usa. Protect products during delivery A next-generation accelerometer is for long-period monitoring of the physical. With its low power capabilities, the ADXL micropower high-g MEMS accelerometer targets Internet of Things IoT solutions where shock and impact on a unit during storage, transit, or use would adversely affect its function, safety, or reliability.
Representative assets include materials inside shipping and storage containers, factory machinery, and battery powered products where there may be lengthy quiet periods punctuated by spontaneous, severe impacts. The resulting low current requirement of less than two microamps while waiting for an impact typically yields years of operation from a single small battery when the sensor is used in a motion-activated system.
Keeping the analysis localized saves power, time, and prevents unnecessary transfer of data for an event that is actually insignificant. DW Analog Devices analog. Utilizing a patented winged element design for higher bond strength and improved fatigue resistance, the Raptor delivers:. I nter net of Things. Designed as an off-the-shelf approach for quick turnaround needs, the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT Smart PT Select Mounted Spherical Roller Bearings suit conveyor and fan and blower applications in the aggregate, air and fluid handling, cement, and material and package handling industries.
A suite of digital technology is built into and around this bearing. N EWS Legacy equipment holds valuable untapped data that is needed to improve business processes and decisions in almost every enterprise and every industry. The partnership between IBM and Opto 22 enables developers to rapidly design, prototype, and deploy applications to connect existing industrial assets to the IBM Watson IoT platform and share their data, capabilities, and resources with other connected systems and assets, to build the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT.
Through this partnership, developers and systems integrators have a concise toolset for connecting the OT and IT domains. The partnership combines more than 40 years of OT domain expertise and innovation from Opto 22 with more than years of IT domain expertise and innovation from IBM. The Watson IoT Platform reduces the need to focus on developing analytics systems and provides everything needed to harness the full potential of the Internet of Things. Developers can connect, set up, and manage edge-processing devices like programmable automation controllers from Opto 22 and apply realtime analytics, cognitive services, and blockchain technology to the data generated by these devices.
Cognitive APIs deliver natural-language processing, machine-learning capabilities, text analytics, and image analytics to help developers realize the potential of the cognitive era with the IBM Watson IoT Platform. Connecting existing industrial assets to IT systems requires translating the electrical signals voltage and current in the physical world to the bits and bytes of the digital world.
These industrial products also communicate and support well-known Internet technologies to support IIoT applications. The future of industrial automation and process control lies in the rising API and data economies made possible through open standards-based technologies.
Your Total Power Solution The most trusted brands, all under one roof. Canfield Connector offers a complete line of highquality sensors at value pricing. We offer tie rod and groove mount products to cover a full range of applications. We also provide NEMA 6 designs, hazardous location versions and custom wire types and lengths.
DW Opto 22 opto At the recent Hannover Messe Preview in Germany, a new collaborative industrial robot was unveiled, dubbed Franka Emika. Consequently, investment is project specific and cannot be depreciated over several projects.
Franka Emika, which features 7 degrees of freedom, is a first-generation collaborative robot system that is designed to assist humans. The construction is completely modular, ultra-lightweight.
It has a highly integrated mechatronic design, sensitive torque sensors in all joints, and human-like kinematics, making the system unique.
Users can also seamlessly stream its data tom connect with Industry 4. It provides quick-buttons to customize the apps and to execute their features. The pilot is essential for teaching the robot via demonstration.
For example, the user can simply press the guiding button and take the robot by hand to teach it what to do. After it learns the task, it operates. Franka Hand can grasp firmly and quickly for high performance and flexible pick and place. The fingers can be exchanged to optimally grasp a wide variety of objects. Due to its force-sensitivity and compliance, it can release and lock the fixture mechanism of its fingers by itself. Hence, different optimized fingers can be seamlessly integrated into any automation processes, and manual tool exchanges become almost unnecessary.
DW Franka Emika franka. Our No. One or multiple locations. Handles very small to extra large fasteners. Patients treated on the GammaPod will likely only need between one to five treatments in order to eradicate certain breast cancers, which is much shorter than the current six-week, five days a week course of radiation. At the core of this new machine is a moving bed for a prone patient and a patented two-cup system that holds and stabilizes the breast with the target.
This allows a targeted and powerful dose of radiation using 36 Cobalt sources that can be administered in new and unique ways, with less dose to normal tissue. The GammaPod from Xcision Medical Systems aims to eliminate early stage breast cancer with as little as one treatment. A highly accurate and targeted radiation dose means less dosing to healthy tissue. Rotary servo table drives optoacoustic imaging system Scientists at Tomowave Laboratories use technologies based on light and sound to make imaging systems for the healthcare industry.
These technologies use optoacoustic and laser ultrasonic methods to produce modalities such as a laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system, which uses pulses of laser light with a dark red color. Optoacoustic tomography OAT is a technique for generating highresolution images of biological tissue that scatters light waves, typically biological tissue. Biological tissue absorbs this light, causing it to heatup by a fraction of one degree.
The resulting temperature increase causes an increase in pressure, which generates ultrasonic optoacoustic waves. The imaging scanner uses arrays of transducers to measure these ultrasound waves at different locations to generate images of internal tissue of different human and animal organs, such as breast or prostate.
These systems listen to the sound of light, allowing doctors to detect and diagnose cancer and other conditions. Recently, engineers at Tomowave developed a system that combines light and sound to generate three-dimensional images of tissue submerged in the imaging module, primarily the tissue of small animals used for research purposes and development of new contrast agents or therapeutic methods.
This optoacoustic tomography system is the first of its kind to produce functional 3D images of biological tissue with equally high resolution in each volumetric direction. The system provides comprehensive information on anatomy and function. These images are especially useful for studying the distribution of blood and its oxygenation level. Imaging module Preclinical research systems rotate the object of study, while the module itself rotates in systems used in clinical settings such as breast imaging systems.
Noninvasive breast imaging systems apply the same technology to produce three-dimensional volumetric optoacoustic images and a stack of two-dimensional ultrasonic images, allowing for image co-registration. These systems produce scans at different wavelengths in minutes with minimal patient discomfort. Custom software processes the volumetric data according to the specific items of interest, which may include hemoglobin content, oxygen saturation and vasculature visualization.
The imaging system uses a PSRUT low-profile rotary servo table from IntelLiDrives to rotate the imaging module at a constant speed, which is programmed in advance. The movement is designed using precise motor controls, gear boxes, and linear bearings, as well as five linear encoders on the bed and two rotary encoders on the bowl system. Even movements that occur while the system is without power are translated into accurate values once the system is powered up again.
The absolute encoders are used for a secondary positional measurement to verify correct positioning which ensures the accuracy of the delivered dose. The direct mounting and absolute calibration provide real-time quality assurance of the bed positioning system. With a patient lying face down on the machine bed, rather than on their back, the breast to be treated naturally falls further away from the chest wall, helping to minimize dose to organs in that region.
These linear encoders are directly mounted on the two table support columns. On each column, Xcision separately monitors the height and lateral offset of the table and the fifth monitors the length axis.
The linear encoders are rigidly mounted to the table. The LIC exposed encoders are characterized by permitting absolute position measurement both over large traverse paths up to 28 m , at high accuracy and at high traversing speed, although Xcision only needs around mm of travel.
The absolute nature of the linear encoders is critical because it allows for detection of primary system failure or calibration error. According to Maton, with the redundant secondary system, the position of the patient is confirmed to be free of such failure or calibration errors, thus ensuring treatment of the correct location in the breast.
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We had started off with relative magnetic encoders in our design, but they were not satisfactory for a couple of reasons. First, we had the problem of having to rotate very slowly in order to find the zero point at each power. The inner cup is designed to.
M ot i o n constrain the shape of the breast. Suction between the cups gently pulls the breast to completely fill the inner cup, and immobilize it. The patient is imaged on a CT scanner, then without removing the cup, moved to the treatment device and the cup is locked into the treatment bed.
A copper wire referred to as a fiducial marker embedded in the cup is used to establish a 3D coordinate system which is used for treatment planning to create the bed position sequence control points for the treatment. The focused and concentrated dose of radiation is delivered according to this sequence. The focus means that the dose will fall off sharply outside the target volume, reducing dose to healthy breast tissue, organs such as the heart and lungs, and to the skin.
This decrease in collateral dose minimizes unwanted exposure and side effects. The planned treatment is based on the established coordinate system and motion control, and includes a specific amount of time for the radiation beams to remain in each position in order to achieve the correct distribution of dose. The system is designed to match a planned dose and delivered dose within one millimeter. But they may be involved in the design of highperformance servo-controlled systems in which mechanical parameters such as stiffness, mass, and damping are interchangeable with proportional, integral and derivative parameters of a PID controller.
So, the design or sizing of mechanical components for automated setups should be done with good understanding of the motion controller and its associated filters. The tool interface is shown in Figure one: Overview of the tutorial webtool. Based on a simple positioning system model, it lets users change both PID and mechanical parameters of the model and observe their effects on system performance.
Design or sizing mechanical components for automated designs is more effective with an understanding of motion controllers. Relationship of servo parameters and mechanical phenomena PID servo parameters and mechanical design parameters of high-performance automation tools are closely related. One self-study webtool can demonstrate the effects of both servo and mechanical parameters of a typical positioning system on its dynamic performance and stability.
The tool we demonstrate lets users select stage parameters that characterize the actual plant — and then use iterative strategies to select an optimal set of PID parameters to maximize overall system performance for robust, safe, and stable operation.
Block diagram and system modeling The block diagram of the model as shown in Figure two: Block diagram of the model represents a simplified closed-loop servo system of a positioning stage. It includes a PID controller, a stage plant , feedback loop, reference position command Xr and actual stage position X. X is sensed by an encoder or by any other positioning feedback device. They are the most influential mechanical parameters on the dynamic performance of most positioning systems.
Input parameters are in yellow boxes. Results are in blue boxes. Settling time after a step input is shown on the upper chart. Frequency responses of the plant PID controller as well as closed-loop and open-loop transfer functions are shown on the bottom. Access this tool at optineer. Also use the tool for learning by changing system parameters and clicking RUN again to observe their effects on results.
As shown in figure two, a driving motor force F acts on the stage block as an input and results in the actual stage position X as an output. Transfer functions and phase angles The explicit relationship between the output X and input Xr of the closed-loop servo system requires simultaneous solution of the two differential equations.
The solution is simplified from differential equations in time domain t to algebraic equations in frequency domain s by using their Laplace transform. The Laplace transform H s of our closed-loop transfer function is represented:.
The phase of output X with respect to input Xr is measured in degrees. That makes it a positive feedback inside the controller and a source for possible instability of the closed-loop servo system. Plant frequency response and stability of closed-loop servo systems When we RUN the webtool after clicking EXAMPLE, the results in the blue boxes below the stage parameters show two important stage characteristics of any automation system — the lowest natural resonance frequency and the damping coefficient.
High performance machines are typically designed for high stiffness K and low moving mass M to get the highest value for the lowest natural frequency. The frequency response Bode plot of the stage is shown in Figure three: Frequency response of the stage plant. In this figure, we see that the gain has an approximately constant value all the way up to the natural frequency. At the natural frequency, the gain increases with a peak bounded by the magnitude of the damping coefficient.
Similarly, the phase starts at zero degrees in low frequencies. Designing hydraulic systems to perform flawlessly under less-than-ideal conditions is hard enough. The Lee Company. Plus many applications in between. If you require precise fluid control, and absolute reliability, go with the experts.
Contact The Lee Company. C o n t r o l Real dynamic systems have multiple natural frequencies and usually multiple axes. But the single-axis model in this webtool is a good performance estimator of most positioning systems. Optimal choices for the simple model have mass, stiffness, and damping parameters that yield the lowest natural frequency and damping coefficient of the more complex system. These two-system characteristics are easily measured for any complex system by an impact test and an accelerometer that traces settling time decay.
PID controller frequency response Many control systems have in addition to a position-feedback loop inner velocity and current feedback loops. Yet they all share the same basic closed-loop transfer function H s as shown in figure three. The difference is in the complexity of their H s expression and the numbers of zeros and poles, with which the controller filters are shaped.
A zero is a frequency at which the gain becomes zero, and a pole is the frequency at which the gain goes to infinity. Although these complex filters are beyond the scope of this tool, the PID as used in our model is considered a classic filter, which is used in many controllers.
It is simple having only one pole and two zeros , relatively easy to understand, and a good one with which to start training for an intuitive understanding of servo-system performance. M o t i o n When we click RUN, the corner-points results of the integral and derivative gains appear in the blue boxes below the yellow PID parameters. Corner points are the frequencies where the integral gain and the derivative gain cross the proportional gain.
Together they define the shape of a trough, as shown in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller. Looking at the gain of the PID frequency response in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller, we see that the integral contribution on the left side of the trough amplifies the error signal at low frequencies and attenuates it at high frequencies. The derivative on the right side amplifies the high frequencies and attenuates the low frequencies.
The proportional gain in between the two corner frequencies defines the bottom of the trough. So if we want to reshape the trough and move the corner point of the integral gain to the left for example we decrease the integral gain. But if we want to move the corner point of the derivative gain to the right, we decrease the derivative gain and vice versa. Similarly, if we want to raise the bottom of the trough we increase the proportional gain The reader may test these trends by making the changes in the webtool and observing the results on the trough position and shape.
In a general machine design, the proportional gain Kp and the motor constant Kf act as mechanical stiffeners K which improve the response time. The derivative gain Kd acts as a mechanical damper B which attenuate high oscillations. The integral gain Ki may act in some cases as a mechanical attenuator such as the inertial effect of a moving mass M. However, in positioning systems it is mostly used in overcoming position errors due to friction.
These lead screw and ball screw actuators offer the benefits of a space saving design, fast and simple assembly, long life, and a competitive price. The rigid enclosed aluminum box structure provides a compact envelope that incorporates the linear bearing and drive mechanism. Integrating all components into a single unit that includes the motor adaptor saves assembly time and eliminates the need to source additional parts.
DL series linear actuators are offered in travel lengths up to mm. The DL ball screw and lead screw actuators utilize recirculating guide technology to provide a low profile and compact design solution. Our DW series double wide is engineered to create a wider mounting platform while still maintaining the same low profile height as our standard width DL actuators.
This double wide design is ideal for applications that need a greater carriage mounting area or where axial play must be minimized. Open-loop frequency response and phase margin When we multiply the two transfer functions — including the plant G s and controller K s — we create the open-loop transfer function K s G s , as shown for our EXAMPLE in Figure five: Frequency response of the open-loop transfer function.